Odin, the chief ruler of the gods, was tall and old, wise and reverend. His beard was white and long, and he seemed to be forever brooding deeply over the mysteries of life and death. He had only one eye as he sacrificed the other to obtain great wisdom.

Every morning, Mimer drank a draught with the Gjallar-horn. The then young Odin had deep desire to receive the wisdom and strength which the mead alone can give. He entreated Mimer to give him a draught in exchange for one of his eyes which was cast into the well.He then drank the Gjallar-horn he became worthy to rule over gods and men. Thus Odin taught to all men that self-sacrifice is required to obtain wisdom and power.

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 “Odin” (1825-1827) by H. E. Freund

As Odin sat brooding in Asgard two ravens perched on his shoulder. Their names are Hugin (“reflection”) and Munin ( “memory”). When day dawned Odin sent them forth, and they returned at eve to whisper in his ears all the doings of men. Thus was he called Rafnagud (“raven-god”). He had also two wolf dogs named Gere (“the greedy”) and Freke (“the voracious”).

Odin invented secret runes, which have magical influence. For nine whole nights he hung on the high branches of Ygdrasil, pondering and searching out the secrets of the mind and of the Universe. The power of runes was before the beginning of man. They are mixed with fate and they have  power over death and the world beyond. Runes there are to ward off strife and care, to charm away sickness and disease, to blunt the foeman’s sword, to break fetters that bind, to still the storms, to ward off the attacks of demons, to make the dead to speak, to win the love of a maid, and to turn away love that is not desired, and many more.

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Odin with Hugin and Mugin.
A Norse mythology image from the 18th century Icelandic manuscript

From the moon-car in heaven, Odin also drank the song-mead which was in the pitcher that Hyuki and Bil had carried from the secret well on the mountain. Vidfinner is the sworn watchman of Hvergelmer and the Rivers Elivagar. One day,he broke his oath of fealty to the gods and fled from his post. Then raging heavenwards he attacked the moon-god, whom he killed and burned. His son Hyuki fought against him and suffered a fierce wound. For this dread crime Ivalde was condemned, but he fled towards Surtur’s deep dales and unto the dwelling of Suttung, son of Surtur, the giant sentinel of Muspelheim. For Surtur and his clan were at enmity with the gods of Asgard. To Suttung, Vidfinner gave the previous skaldic mead he was rewarded the hand of Gunlad, the giant’s daughter, in marriage.

Odin, seeing all that happened as he sat in his high throne, resolved to recapture the mead by cunning.  So he set out to visit the hall of Suttung (“the mead wolf”). The realm of Surtur is difficult to reach, and full of peril for the gods. It lies in the dark underworld which is lower than even Hela. Suttung’s hall is within a mountain to which, in a deep abyss with only one entry, and it is guarded by a fierce dwarf sentinel.

Odin secured the confidence of the dwarf, who promised to help him. He bored through the mountain a narrow tunnel through which Odin might escape in eagle-guise. Thus, having completed his designs, Odin went towards the door of the dwelling of the great fire-giant Suttung.

Odin arrived to a great feast to welcome Vidfinner , the wooer of the giant-maid Gunlad. Odin assumed the form of Vidfinner. A high seat of gold awaited the expected wedding-guest, and when Odin entered in the form of Vidfinner, he was welcomed with ardour. As he sat at the feast, Gunlad came forward and gave him a draught of the stolen mead. Meanwhile,  the real Vidfinner reached the door of Suttung’s hall and came to know that Odin was within. He was filled with wrath and sought to denounce Odin so that he might be slain by the giants. But the dwarf sentinel created an illusion, and opened a door on the side of the mountain which showed a lighted hall within and the wedding guests as they sat around Suttung’s board. Gunlad was at Odin’s side. Vidfinner leapt towards the vision of the high god of Asgard and thus dashed himself against the rock. The door was shut behind and the mountain swallowed him.

Ere the wedding feast was ended Odin had spoken words which caused the giants to suspect him. But he retired with Gunlad to the bridal chamber, and there he found the precious mead which Vidfinner had robbed from the moon-god. Then Gunlad came to know that her lover was Odin, but she helped him to make his escape in eagle-guise. So Odin flew through the tunnel which Heimdal had made, and reached Asgard in safety with the precious mead.

Although Odin conferred great good upon gods and men by retrieving the mead, he inadvertently brought forth a disaster when Surtur, issuing forth to avenge the wrong done to Gunlad, set the world aflame. Because good can never follow evil, even although it is accomplished for the sake of good.

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