Those who are familiar with the Chinese word wuxiá (“martial heroes”) may associate the word with memories of martial arts films and television programs that portray a fanciful depiction of Chinese martial arts to audiences around the world. However, there is more to wuxia than meets the eye. Wuxia is in fact an entire literary genre that depicts the exploits of ancient Chinese martial artists. It has proven to be popular enough to be used in a number of modern cultural media, including Chinese opera, films, television series and video games.
Some babies shake rattles and others shake up kingdoms. We hear many stories of the unhappy lives and ends of child rulers. Most recently, in 1908, Puyi became the last emperor of China at only two years old. As the crowning ceremony began, the frightened little emperor had to be carried to the throne by his father as he cried, kicked, and clawed – desperately trying to escape. But he had no choice. A child though he was, he had to rule an empire.
When he was only 10 years old, the Yunnan province was reconquered by Chinese forces led by Ming Dynasty generals. His father was killed in the battle that ensued, and he soon found himself among the boys who were captured by the Ming army. He was castrated as was customary for juvenile captives. He survived this ordeal and was forced to serve in the army. Years later, this little Muslim captive from Yunnan became one of the greatest adventurers in history.
The Four Great Beauties are four ancient Chinese women renowned for their beauty which they skillfully exercised to influence Chinese history. Although each of the Four Great Beauties frequently appear as the subjects or objects of arts, one seldom learns much of them beyond their names, descriptions of their looks and brief mentions of their skills, which was then preserved by Confucius as part of his philosophy.