The Importance of Laughter

Take bread away from me, if you wish,
take air away, but
do not take from me your laughter.

Pablo Neruda (1904 – 1973)

Psychologist Robert Provine’s theory is that, “Laughter is a mechanism everyone has. It is a part of universal human vocabulary. There are thousands of languages, hundreds of thousands of dialects, but everyone speaks laughter in pretty much the same way.” Babies have the ability to laugh before they ever speak. Children who are born blind and deaf still retain the ability to laugh. In other words, when you have very little else, you will still have the ability to laugh.

One Australian aboriginal creation myth believed that, in the beginning, we were all sleeping and dreaming, and the world was silent and empty. The first thing to awake was a rainbow serpent, and she emerged from the ground. She started waking creatures up, one by one, starting with the frogs. Still, she realized that this new world needed water, all of which was contained in the bellies of the frogs. Therefore, the serpent quickly came up with a solution.

The rainbow serpent tickled the frogs until they all began to laugh. Because they laughed so hard, the frogs began to cough up water. The water flowed, creating plants and awakening many other animals. Any animal who kept the laws the rainbow serpent laid out would become a human, whereas anyone who broke the laws became stones, which we see all over Australia today.

God has a smile on His face.

Psalm 42:5

Another Aboriginal myth says that a long time ago, only the moon and stars lighted the Earth. No one had ever felt the warmth or seen the light of the sun. The spirits who lived in the sky looked down on all the birds and beasts, concerned that the creatures were not happy. One day they decided that the world needed more light. So they collected wood and began to stack higher and higher and higher. When the wood was stacked so high they could no longer see the top, the spirits light a fire.

“The creatures of the Earth will delight in our light,” the spirits said, “but we must announce its arrival.” The spirits sent a star out into the sky — the first morning star — and instructed it to announce the arrival of the light that would soon warm the world. The star shimmered and sparkled, but few noticed it there in the dimly lighted sky, and when the birds and beasts first saw the light of the great fire, they were so shocked that many of them died of fright.

The spirits then decided they must need a noise to announce the dawn. Something loud. Something unusual, something startling. They began to consider the creatures one by one. Should the crane be granted the power to wake the world? What sounds could other creatures make that might wake everyone? Perhaps the bandicoot could loudly squeak, or the lorikeet could screech. Maybe the kangaroo could make a sound, or even the platypus. It was very confusing. All the creatures of this Earth were special, but how would they decide who would be granted this honor?

Then one day, just after the morning star began to shine, the spirits heard a most amazing sound. Kookaburra peered down at the ground and spied a mouse. He launched himself from his perch in the treetops and pounced upon that mouse, and when he had conquered his prey, he began to laugh. It was a sound like no other. When the spirits heard that sound, they knew that Kookaburra must become the world’s morning trumpeter. That very night the spirits visited Kookaburra in his home inside the gum tree. “Kookaburra,” they said, “every day, just as the morning star begins to fade, you will laugh as loudly as you can. It is your laughter that will wake all the sleepers before our fire lights the sky.”

Kookaburra realized that he could become a hero. He would be important and respected. So the very next day, just as the morning star began to fade, Kookaburra looked up at the sky and began to laugh. When the spirits heard that sound, they lighted their fire and slowly the Earth below began to glow from the light above. The warmth seeped down slowly, building as the fire blazed higher and higher. The flames leapt higher and burned for many hours. And then the fire began to die until, at long last, only embers remained, and the day grew dim at first, and then darkness came again.

The spirits gathered the last of the embers in the clouds, and used these to start their fire the next day, just after they heard Kookaburra’s laugh. Many years later, Kookaburra laughed loudly every morning, and every morning the spirits lighted the fire to warm the Earth below. When the Creator brought people into the world, the spirits instructed them to never tease Kookaburra. The elders instructed their children, “If Kookaburra hears you making fun of him, he will never laugh again. Then we will no longer have light or warmth.” So all the people learned, just as the beasts and birds had learned, that Kookaburra must be respected because he saved the light for all.

When you realize how perfect everything is you will tilt your head back and laugh at the sky.

Buddha

Aboriginal Australians comprise many distinct peoples who have developed across Australia for over 50,000 years. The stories enshrined in Aboriginal mythology variously tell significant truths within each Aboriginal group’s local landscape, effectively layer the whole of the Australian continent’s topography with cultural nuance and deeper meaning and empower its listeners with the accumulated wisdom and knowledge of Australian Aboriginal ancestors back to time immemorial.

Sol et Luna: Creation Myths of the Sun and the Moon

A solar creation myth from Japan contains a reference to a floating cloud in the midst of infinite space, before matter had taken any other form. This also nicely describes the original nebula from which scientists say the solar system was evolved. The legend says that when there was no heaven, earth, sun, or moon, there was only the Invisible Lord of the Middle Heaven existing in an infinite space. With him there were two other gods. Between them, they created a floating cloud in the midst of which was a liquid formless and lifeless mass from which the earth was evolved.

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After this, seven generations of gods were born in heaven – the last and most perfect were Izanagi and Izanami who went on to become the parents of the world and all that is in it. After the creation of the world of living things, Izanagi bathed his left eye and sprang Amaterasu, the great Sun-Goddess. Izanagi rejoiced and put a necklace of jewels he around her neck. He said to her, “Rule thou over the Plain of High Heaven.” Thus Amaterasu became the source of all life and light worshipped by mankind. Then Izanagi he bathed his right eye, and there appeared Tsukuyomi,the Moon-God. Izanagi said, “Rule thou over the Dominion of Night.”

In Norse mythology, Odin arranged the periods of daylight and darkness, and the seasons. He placed the sun and moon in the heavens, and regulated their respective courses. Day and Night were considered mortal enemies as light came from above, and darkness from beneath. However, there is another version which says that the sun and moon were formed from the sparks from the fire land of Muspelheim. The father of the two luminaries was Mundilfare, and he named his beautiful boy and girl, Maane (Moon) and Sol (Sun). The gods took his children from him and placed them in the heavens, where they permitted Sol to drive the horses of the sun, and gave over the regulation of the moon’s phases to Maane.

Among the Eskimos of Behring Strait, the creation of the earth and all it contains is attributed to the Raven Father. The Raven Father came from the sky after a great deluge. He made the dry ground and created human and animal life. But mankind threatened the animal life, and this so annoyed the Raven Father that he punished man by taking the sun out of the sky, and hiding it in a bag at his home. The people were frightened at the loss of the sun, and offered rich gifts to the Raven Father to appease him. So he relented somewhat, and would hold the sun up in one hand for a day or two at a time, so that the people could have sufficient light for hunting, and then he would put it back in his bag again. This arrangement, though better than nothing, was not satisfactory to people. The Raven’s brother took pity on them, and thought of a scheme to better human conditions. He faked his death, and after he had been buried and the mourners had gone away, he came forth from the grave, and turned himself into a leaf which floated on the surface of a stream. Later, the Raven’s wife came to the stream for a drink and, dipping up the water, she swallowed with it the leaf. The Raven’s wife soon after gave birth to a boy who cried continuously for the sun. To silence him, his father often gave him the sun to play with. One day, the boy flew away with the sun and placed it in its proper place in the sky. He also regulated its daily course, making day and night, so that the people always have the constant light of the sun to guide them by day.

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The ancient Peruvians believed that the god Viracocha rose out of Lake Titicaca, made the sun, moon and stars, then regulated their courses. The Muyscas, who inhabited the high plains of Bogota, was said to have lived in a state of savagery before the arrival of an old bearded man from the east named Bochica (the Sun) who taught them agriculture and the worship of the gods. However, his wife Huythaca was not pleased with his attentions to mankind and caused a great deluge which drowned most of the inhabitants of the earth. This, of course, angered Bochica. He drove his wife away from the earth by turning her into the Moon. He then dried up the earth, and once more made it habitable for mankind to live in.

According to Mexican tradition, Nexhequiriac was the creator of the world. He sent down the Sun-God and the Moon-God to illuminate the earth, so that mankind could see to perform their daily tasks. The Sun-God went on his way without delay, but the Moon-God, who was hungry, saw a rabbit and started chasing it. This, of course, took some time. After he caught and ate the rabbit, the Moon-God looked up and found his brother, the Sun-God, had outdistanced him. The Sun-God was, in fact, so far ahead, so that thereafter the Moon-God was unable to overtake him. This is also the reason why the sun always appears to be ahead of the moon, and why the sun always looks fresh and red, and the moon sick and pale. Those who gaze intently at the moon can still see the rabbit dangling from his mouth.

According to the Tonga tribe, of the South Pacific Islands, before there was any light upon the earth, Vatea and Tonga-iti argued about which one of them was the parent of a child. Each was confident the child was his and to end the dispute they decided to share it. The infant was then cut in two. Vatea took the upper half as his share, and squeezing it into a ball tossed it up into the sky where it became the sun. Tonga-iti allowed his share, the lower part of the infant, to remain on the ground for a day or two, but seeing the brightness of Vatea’s half, he squeezed his share too, and threw it up into the dark sky when the sun was absent in the underworld, and it became the moon. Thus the sun and the moon were created, and the paleness of the moon is due to the fact that all the blood was drained out of it when it lay on the ground.

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The Beginning of the World, the Pain and Separation of the Divine Family

In Maori mythology, Ranginui and Papatūānuku are the sky father and the earth mother. They lie locked together in a tight embrace. Their many children, the gods, are therefore forced to live in the cramped darkness between them. These children always dreamed of living in the light. When they grew up, Tumatauenga, the god of war and fiercest of the children, proposes that the best solution to their predicament is to kill their parents.

Image by holgerheinze0 from Pixabay

But his brother Tane, god to forests and birds, disagrees, suggesting that it is better to push them apart. If they pushed Ranginui and Papatūānuku apart, Ranginui would be propelled upwards to form the sky while Papatūānuku will remain below to nurture them. Their brothers preferred this plan and immediately put this plan into action. Rongo, the god of cultivated food, Tangaroa, the god of the sea, and Haumia-tiketike, the god of wild food,  pushed his parents apart with their hands. However, in spite of their joint efforts Ranginui and Papatūānuku remain close together in their loving embrace. After many attempts Tāne lies on his back and pushes Ranginui away from Papatūānuku with his strong legs. Stretching every sinew of his body, Tāne pushes and pushes until, with cries of shock and grief, Ranginui and Papatūānuku were pried apart.

And so, for the first time in their lives, the children of Ranginui and Papatūanuku see light. However, not everyone was happy about this separation. Tawhirimatea, the god of storms and winds, is angered that his parents have been torn apart and cannot bear to see his father’s tears as he was ripped apart and thrown up to the sky. Tawhirimatea flies off to join Ranginui. To fight his brothers, Tāwhirimātea gathers an army of his children—winds and clouds of different kinds, including fierce squalls, whirlwinds, gloomy thick clouds, fiery clouds, hurricane clouds and thunderstorm clouds, and rain, mists and fog. As these winds show their might the dust flies and the great forest trees of Tāne are smashed under the attack and fall to the ground, food for decay and for insects. 

Image by Johannes Plenio from Pixabay

Then Tāwhirimātea attacks the oceans and huge waves rise, whirlpools form, and Tangaroa, the god of the sea, flees in panic. Punga, a son of Tangaroa, has two children, Ikatere – the father of fish, and Tu-te-wehiwehi – the father pf reptiles. Terrified by Tāwhirimātea’s onslaught, Ikatere seek shelter in the sea and Tu-te-wehiwehi found refuge in the forests. Tangaroa has been angry with Tāne eversince for giving refuge to Tu-te-wehiwehi and for helping the descendants of Tūmatauenga with tools to catch his grandchildren, the fish. So whenever Tāne supplies the descendants of Tūmatauenga with canoes, fishhooks and nets to catch the descendants of Tangaroa, Tangaroa retaliates by swamping the canoes and sweeping away houses, land and trees that are washed out to sea in floods, hoping that the reptiles, children of Tu-te-wehiwehi would finally come home.

Tāwhirimātea then attacks his brothers Rongo and Haumia-tiketike, the gods of cultivated and uncultivated foods. However, Papatūānuku hides them so well that Tāwhirimātea cannot find them. Unsatisfied, Tāwhirimātea turns on his brother Tūmatauenga. However, Tūmatauenga stands fast and Tāwhirimatea cannot prevail against him. At last, the war of the gods subsided and peace prevailed.

Tūmatauenga never forgotten about Tane’s action in separating their parents and his brothers’ preference towards Tane’s methods. He made snares to catch the birds so that the children of Tāne who could no longer fly free. He then made nets from forest plants and casts them in the sea so that the children of Tangaroa would lie in heaps on the shore. He made hoes to dig the ground, capturing his brothers Rongo and Haumia-tiketike where they have hidden from Tāwhirimātea. Recognising them by their long hair that remains above the surface of the earth, he drags them up and heaps them into baskets to be eaten. Thus Tūmatauenga eats all of his brothers and their children to repay them for what he perceived as their cowardice.

All these actions left out one more child of Ranginui and Papatūānuku. This child was never born and still lives inside Papatūanuku. Whenever this child is kicking the earth shakes and causes an earthquake. His name is Ruaumoko, the god of earthquakes and volcanoes.

Perhaps contrary to Tūmatauenga’s belief, Tāne took no pleasure in separating his parents. Later, he searched for heavenly bodies as lights to beautifully adorn his father. He threw up the stars, the moon and the sun towards his father, hoping to make him a little happier. Ranginui and Papatūanuku continue to grieve for each other to this day. Ranginui’s tears sometimes fall towards Papatūanuku to show how much he loves her. Sometimes Papatūanuku heaves and strains and almost breaks herself apart to reach her beloved partner again but it is to no avail. When mist rises from the forests, these are Papatūānuku’s sighs as the warmth of her body yearns for Ranginui and continues to nurture mankind.

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From the Body of a Giant: Ancient Norse Story of Creation

At the very beginning there was nothing. Then a vast and empty gulf opened in space. The  length and breadth of this gulf was immesurable and its depth was beyond any of our comprehension. That gulf contained the beginning of everything.

Then, one by one, our homes were formed. On the north was Nifel-heim, the home of misty darkness and freezing cold. On the south was Muspel-heim, the luminous home of warmth and of light. In middle was Nifel-heim, the great fountain from which all waters flow. The great fountain was named Hvergelmer (“the roaring cauldron”) from which surged twelve tremendous rivers called Elivagar which washed southward towards the gulf. These rivers flew from their source to great distances before the venom that was swept with them began to harden until they congealed and became ice. The rivers grew silent and gigantic blocks of ice formed.

That part of the gulf laying northward was a region of horror and of strife. Heavy masses of black vapour enveloped the ice, and within were screaming whirlwinds that never ceased, and dismal banks of fleeting mist. But southward, Muspel-heim glowed with intense radiance, and sprayed forth beautiful flakes and sparks of shining fire. The intervening space between the region of tempest and gloom and the region of warmth and light was a peaceful twilight, serene and still.

When the sparks from Muspel-heim fell through the frozen vapour, completed by the heat was sent there by the might of the All-father, drops of moisture began to fall from the ice. It was then that life began. The drops were quickened and a formless mass took human shape. Thus came into being the great lumbering clay-giant named Ymer. Ymer was rough and ungainly. As he stretched himself and began to move about, Ymer was tortured by the pangs of immense hunger. He searched for food, but there was nothing he could eat. The whirlwinds went past him and the dark mists enveloped him like a shroud.

More drops fell through the gloomy vapours and formed a gigantic cow, which was named Audhumla (“void darkness”). Ymer saw the cow standing in the gloom beside blocks of ice and groped weakly towards it. He found that milk ran from its teats in four white streams. He drank and drank until he was filled with the seeds of life. Then a great heaviness came over him and he lay down into deep sleep. In his sleep, sweat gathered in the pit of his left arm, from which a son named Mimer and a daughter named Bestla were formed. From Mimer the Vana-gods were descended. A monstrous six-headed son, who was the ancestor of the evil frost giants, the dreaded Hrimthursar, was born from under the feet of Ymer.

Then Ymer was awoken by Audhumla, the great cow, because she could not find anything to eat. She had been surviving by licking the huge boulders that were encrusted by salt and rime. In one day, hair of a great head appeared in the boulders. On the second day, when Audhumla returned to the boulder, a head of human semblance was laid bare. On the third day a form leapt forth. He was beautiful, nimble and powerful. He was Bure, the first of the Asa-gods.

In time, more beings followed. Mimer, who is Mind and Memory, had daughters, the chief of whom was Urd, Goddess of Fate and Queen of Life and Death. Bure had a son named Bor, who took for his wife Bestla, the sister of Mimer. They had three sons: the first was called Odin, the second Ve – also known as Honer, and the third Vile – also known as Lodur and Loke. Odin became the chief ruler of the Asa-gods, and Honer was chief of the Vans until Loke, the usurper, became their ruler.

Ymer and his sons were moved with wrath and enmity against the family of gods, and soon warfare broke out between them. The fierce conflicts were waged through the long ages as the earth was formed until the sons of Bure prevailed. When Ymer was stricken down, the victors leapt upon him and slit open the bulging veins of his neck. A great deluge of blood gushed forth, and the whole race of giants was drowned except Bergelmer (“The Mountain-old”) who took refuge on the timbers of the great World-mill with his wife and remained there. From these are descended the Jotuns, who for ever harboured enmity against the gods.

When Ymer was dead, the gods set forth to frame the world. They laid Ymer’s body on the mill and ground it. The stones were smeared with blood and the dark flesh came out as mould producing the earth and the gods shaped it to their desire. Rocks and the mountains were made from Ymer’s bones. His teeth and jaws were broken and flung the fragments forming pebbles and boulders. The ice-cold blood of Ymer became the waters of the vast engulfing sea.

The gods then set Ymer’s skull over the earth to be the heavens. At each of the four corners they put as strong dwarfs East and West and North and South as guardians. The skull of Ymer rests upon their broad shoulders.

Mundilfore, who cared for the World-mill, aspired to rival Odin. He had two beautiful children, Mani (moon)  and Sol (sun). Mundilfore’s presumption angered the gods and, to punish him, they took his two children away from him to drive the heavenly chariots and count the Years for men.  They sent Sol to drive the sun-chariot. Her steeds are Arvak, which is “Early Dawn”, and Alsvid, which signifies “scorching heat”.  They enter the eastern heaven at Hela-gate, through which the souls of dead men pass to the world beneath.

Then the gods set Mani, the handsome youth, to drive the chariot of the moon. With him are two fair children whom he carried away from earth – a boy Hyuki, and a girl named Bil. They had been sent out in the darkness of night by Vidfinner, their father, to draw song-mead from the mountain spring Byrger, “the hidden”, which broke forth from the source of Mimer’s fount. They filled their pail Saegr to the brink, so that the precious mead spilled over as they raised it on the pole Simul. When they began to descend the mountain, Mani seized them and took them away. The spots seen on the fair-faced moon are Hyuki and Bil.

The sun and the moon are pursued by gigantic wolves. Skoll, “the adherer”, chases the sunand Hati, “the hater”, who races in front of “the bright maiden of heaven”, in ceaseless pursuit of the moon.

Skoll and Hati are giants in wolf-guise. They were sent forth by the Mother of Evil, the dark and fearsome Hag, Gulveig-Hoder. She lived in the Iarnvid, the black forest of iron trees, on the world’s edge, which is the habitation of a witch family dreaded both by gods and by men. Hati, who is also called Managarm, “the moon devourer”, feeds on the blood of dying men. The seers have foretold that when he comes to swallow the moon, the heavens and the earth shall turn red with blood.

Nat (Night), is the daughter of the Vana-giant Narve (“the Binder”). Her hair is dark and her eyes are soft and benevolent. She brings rest and refreshment to the weary, and sleep and dreams unto all. To the warrior she gives strength so that he may win victory, care and sorrow she loves to take away. Nat is the beneficent mother of gods. She married three times. Her first husband was Nagelfare of the stars, and their son was Aud of bounteous riches. Her second husband was Annar, “Water”, and their daughter, Jörd, the earth-goddess, was Odin’s wife and the mother of Thor. Her third husband was Delling, the red elf of dawn, and their son was Dagr, which is Day.

Vindsval, son of gloomy Vasud, “the ice wind”, was father of Winter, and the mild and beneficent Svasud was the sire of Summer.

Finally, the sons of Bure saw two logs of wood. One log was from an ash tree, and from it the gods shaped a man named Ask. The other, which was an alder tree, was shaped into a woman named Embla. The gods gave them mind and will and desire, and from them the entire human race descended. They live in Midgard, “middle ward”, and Mana-heim, “home of men”.