The Sisters of Fire and Water

When the Hawaiian sea goddess Namakaokahai met the mighty sorcerer, Aukelenuiaiku, she was impressed by his warrior spirit. Soon, she married him, showed him all her forms and taught him her magical powers.

Unfortunately, after their marriage, Aukelenuiaiku was seduced by another woman. To add insult to injury, that woman was none other than Namakaokahai’s own younger sister, Pele. It is one of the odd mysteries of life that when a man was unfaithful to his wife, the wife would first blame the other woman. Such was the case with Namakaokahai and Pele. Overcomed with rage, Namakaokahai sent high tides and floods to destroy Pele’s home. Pele fled but could not escape her sister’s wrath.


Pele’s help came in the form of her oldest brother Kamohoali’i, the god of the sharks. He gave her a great canoe to escape. Accompanied by her brother and her favorite sister Hi’iaka, she traveled far from home, over the wide expanse of the seas, sailing on this great canoe eventually to find Hawaii. 

Pursued by Namakaokahai, Pele landed first on Kauai. However, every time she thrust her o’o (digging stick) to dig a put for her home, Namakaokahai would flood the pits. Pele moved down the chain of islands until eventually landing on Mauna Loa – the tallest mountain on earth. As even the sea goddess herself could not send the ocean’s waves high enough on Mauna Loa to drown Pele, Pele established her home on its slopes. She pronounced the cliff on nearby Kilauea Mountain as sacred to her eldest brother Kamohoali’i, who saved her life. Kamohoali’i became the keeper of the gourd that held the water of life which gave him the power to revive the dead. Out of respect for Kamohoali’i, to this day Pele never allows clouds of volcanic steam to touch his cliff. Her other brothers who accompanied her on her journey also still appear on the Big Island mountain. Kanehekili appears as thunder, Kapohoikahiola as explosions, Keua’akepo in showers of fire, and Keoahikamakaua in spears of lava that escape from fissures during eruptions.

Pele may not have been on the best of terms with her older sister, but perhaps sometimes it is better to argue with your family instead of being a complete stranger to them. From her new home, Pele engaged in battles with Namakaokahai. To this day, Pele’s eruptions from Hawaii Island’s volcanoes flow thick and hot till they reach the sea — symbolizing the match in strength between the sisters of fire and water.

Image by Adrian Malec from Pixabay

Naupaka: The Legend of the Torn Flower

The beautiful Naupaka flower is one of Hawaii’s most common plants found both along the beach and in the mountains. Its appearance is unique as it looks like a flower that has been torn in half.

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There are different legends about this flower, and they all relate to the story of forbidden love. One of the more famous legends tells us about the princess Naupaka who lived in the mountains. One day while walking along the beach, she met encountered a handsome fisherman named Kaui. When their eyes met, they both smiled – it was love at first sight.

Realizing that she would never be allowed to marry a common fisherman, Princess Naupaka knew that she was prohibited from marrying him. She rushed to one of the Kupunas (elders) in the village. Hearing her story, the Kupuna shook her head sadly as the princess’ marriage is prohibited by Hawaiian custom. However, “all is not lost”, she said, “perhaps you can see the high priest and ask for his permission.”

Thus Naupaka and Kaui travelled for days to search for the high priest. Once they finally found him they told him about their love and asked his permission to marry. The priest was sympathetic, but even he could not turn his back on their custom. “That blessing” , he said “only comes from the gods.” He then suggested that the lovers pray earnestly to them until they have their answer.

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So Naupaka and Kaui prayed. Soon, dark clouds came overhead and a heavy rain fell upon them. A lightning struck near them and Naupaka screamed in shock. She stopped her prayer and the rain soon stopped. Heartbroken, the princess realized that the thunder and lightning was a sign from the gods that she and Kaui were not allowed to be together. She tore the flower from her hair and ripped it in half. She then gave half to Kaui and the two lovers said their goodbyes. Kaui would return to the seas and Naupaka would spend the rest of her life in the mountains.

As Naupaka and Kaui went their separate ways, the flowers around them saw their sadness and mourned to see the heartbroken young lovers. To this day, the flowers near the sea and in the mountains only bloom in halves. The ones growing near the sea are called Naupaka Kahakai, while the ones growing in the mountain is called Naupaka Kauihiwa. Each flowers look like half of a blossom, but when they are placed together, they form a perfect flower. When the flower of the Naupaka Kauihiwi and the Naupaka Kahakai are joined together after they have been picked, the lovers can be reunited, even if it was only for a brief moment.

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Hero Born in Sorrow: the Birth, Love and Death of Tristan

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A fragment of Tristrant, by Eilhart von Oberg. Parchment manuscript written in East Alemannian with Middle German-Lower German Elements in the early 13th century

In an expedition to the court of Mark, king of Cornwall and England, Riwalin, king in the land of the Parmenians, had become acquainted and subsequently passionately in love with Mark’s beautiful sister, Blancheflure. Later, as he was assisting Mark in a campaign, Riwalin became mortally wounded and was carried to Tintajole. Blancheflure, disguised as a beggar maid, hastened to his sickbed and saved Mark’s life through her devoted love. The lovers then fled together to his native land and Blancheflure was proclaimed as his consort. However, Morgan attacked Riwalin’s country and, the king entrusted the pregnant Blancheflure to his faithful retainer Rual. Rual placed the queen for safekeeping in the castle of Kaneel. Here she gave birth to a son and died as her husband fell in the battle against Morgan.

In order to protect the king’s son from Morgan’s pursuits, Rual spread the rumor that the infant had been born dead. The boy was named Tristan because he had been conceived and born in sorrow. Under the care of Rual and his wife, Tristan grew up strong in body and mind until his fourteenth year, when he was kidnapped by Norwegian merchants, who then put him ashore in Cornwall because they feared the wrath of the gods. Here the boy was found by the soldiers of King Mark, who was so pleased with the brave and handsome youth that he made him his master of the chase.

Meanwhile, the faithful Rual set forth to look for his abducted foster son. Disguising himself as a beggar, Rual found Tristan in found at last in Cornwall. Rual revealed the story of Tristan’s birth to the king who was delighted to see in him the son of his beloved sister and raised him to the rank of knight. To avenge his father, Tristan proceeded with Rual to Parmenia, vanquished Morgan the usurper, and gave the country to Rual as the liege while he himself returned to his uncle Mark. 

In the service of Mark, Tristan killed Morald, the bridegroom of Isolde. Being severly wounded, Tristan was saved by Isolde herself. Tristan then asked her hand in marriage on behalf of his uncle Mark. When he fulfilled the condition of killing a dragon, Isolde reluctantly accompanied Tristan to Cornwall. On the journey they unwittingly drank a disastrous love potion which bound them together in frenzied passion. 

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“Sir Tristram and La Belle Yseult Drinking the Love Potion”,
Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828 – 1882)

On Isolde’s wedding night with Mark, Isolde had her faithful maid Brangäne represent her and sacrifices her virginity to the king. Next followed the banishment of Tristan, Tristan’s attempts to regain his beloved, although he had meanwhile married another Isolde (“Isolde the White Hand,” of Brittany) who resembled his beloved “Isolde the Fair.” At last Tristan was again severely wounded. Only this time his beloved Isolde arrived too late to save him. 

A plainer version of the Tristan saga is found in the fairy tale “The True Bride,” quoted by Riklin from Rittershaus. In this story, the childless royal pair were much less affectionate. The king threatened to kill his wife unless she bears a child by the time of his return from his sea voyage. Seeing that sea voyages are long and the king was, apparently, rather stupid. The queen was secretly brought to him during his journey, by his zealous maid-servant, as the fairest of three promenading ladies, and the king took her into his tent without recognizing her. After sleeping with the king, the queen returned home without having been discovered. She then gave birth to a daughter, Isol, and died.

When she was older, Isol found a most beautiful little boy in a box by the seaside. The name of the boy was Tristram. Isol raised him and became engaged to him. The subsequent story, which contains the motif of the true bride, is noteworthy for present purposes only in so far as here again occurs the drink of oblivion, and two Isoldes. The king’s second wife gave a potion to Tristram which caused him to completely forget his Isol, leading him to marry Isota. However, he ultimately discovered the deception and became united with his Isol.

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Overall view of the so-called Tristante carpet, wall hanging, circa 1300, wool. Kloster Wienhausen at Celle, Germany.

Ancient Halloween Stories of Love and Lost

The evil powers that came out at Samhain lived the rest of the time in the cave of Cruachan in Connaught. This cave was called the “hell-gate of Ireland,” and was unlocked on November Eve to let out spirits and copper-colored birds which killed the farm animals. They also stole babies, leaving in their place changelings, goblins who were already old while still in the cradle, possessing superhuman cunning and skill in music. One way of getting rid of these demon children was to ill-treat them so badly that their people would come for them bringing the right children back. Another alternative was to boil egg-shells in the sight of the changeling, who would declare his demon nature by saying that in his centuries of life he had never seen such a thing before.

Brides were also stolen.

“You shall go with me, newly married bride,

And gaze upon a merrier multitude;

White-armed Nuala and Aengus of the birds,

And Feacra of the hurtling foam, and him

Who is the ruler of the western host,

Finvarra, and the Land of Heart’s Desire,

Where beauty has no ebb, decay no flood,

But joy is wisdom, time an endless song.”

“Land of Heart’s Desire” – W. B. Yeats (1865 – 1939)

Ailill and his queen Medb lived in the first century BC. As they were celebrating their Samhain feast in the palace, they offered a reward to the man who should tie a bundle of twigs about the feet of a criminal who had been hanged by the gates. It was dangerous to go near dead bodies on November Eve, but a bold young man named Nera dared to do it and tied the twigs successfully. As he turned to go he saw

“the whole of the palace as if on fire before

him, and the heads of the people of it lying on

the ground, and then he thought he saw an

army going into the hill of Cruachan, and he

followed after the army.”

“Cuchulain of Muirthemne”, Augusta, Lady Gregory (1852 – 1932)

Nera was married to a fairy woman, who betrayed her kindred by sending Nera to warn King Ailill of the intended attack upon his palace the next November Eve. Nera went to see Ailill bringing summer fruits with him to prove that he had been in the fairy sid. His purpose was to warn the king so that he could defend his people. However, the next November Eve, when the gates were opened Ailill entered and discovered the crown, took it away and plundered the treasury. Nera never returned again to the homes of men.

Nera was not the only one who married a fairy woman. In her previous life, queen Medb, the wife of Ailill himself, was Princess Etain of the race of the Tuatha and wife of Midir. She only remembered little of the land from which she came, and was never quite happy in her new existence.

“But sometimes–sometimes–tell me; have you heard,

By dusk or moonset have you ever heard

Sweet voices, delicate music? Never seen

The passage of the lordly beautiful ones

Men call the Shee?”

“Immortal Hour”, – William Sharp (1855 – 1905)

swan-10410__340Another story of about the same time was that of Angus, the son of a Tuatha god. He dreamed of a beautiful maiden. He wasted away with love for her, and searched the country for a girl who should look like her. At last, he saw in a meadow among a hundred and fifty maidens, each with a chain of silver about her neck, one who looked like the beauty of his dream. She wore a golden chain around her neck. She was Princess Caer, the daughter of King Ethal Anbual. King Ethal’s palace was stormed by Ailill, and he was forced to give up his daughter. On Samhain, Caer changed from a maiden to a swan, and back again the next year.

When the time came Angus went to the loch, and he saw hundreds of white birds there. Angus stood at the edge of the loch and he called to the girl, “Come and speak with me, O Caer!”

“Who is calling me?” Caer replied.

 “Angus calls you,” he said, “and if you do come, I swear by my word I will not hinder you from going into the loch again.”

She came to him. Angus changed to a swan and they flew away to King Dagda’s palace, where every one who heard their sweet singing was charmed into a sleep of three days and three nights.

In Derbyshire, England, torches of straw were carried about the stacks on All Souls’ Eve, not to drive away evil spirits, as in Scotland, but to light souls through Purgatory. Sometimes, one may briefly see the image of their lost loved ones.

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“‘Why do you wait at your door, woman,

Alone in the night?’

‘I am waiting for one who will come, stranger,

To show him a light.

He will see me afar on the road,

And be glad at the sight.’

“‘Have you no fear in your heart, woman,

To stand there alone?

There is comfort for you and kindly content

Beside the hearthstone.’

But she answered, ‘No rest can I have

Till I welcome my own.’

“‘Is it far he must travel to-night,

This man of your heart?’

‘Strange lands that I know not, and pitiless seas

Have kept us apart,

And he travels this night to his home

Without guide, without chart.’

“‘And has he companions to cheer him?’

‘Aye, many,’ she said.

‘The candles are lighted, the hearthstones are swept,

The fires glow red.

We shall welcome them out of the night–

Our home-coming dead.'”

“Hallowe’en”, Winifred M. Letts (1882–1972)